حواء

الإثنين,7 مارس, 2016
من بينها “المونوبولي”.. نساء صاحبات اختراعات لن تصدّقها..

??????_?? ??? ????? ???? ???? ????? ??????: ??? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????.

 

???? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ??????:

 

1. ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ????

 

????? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ????????.

 

???? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ??????.

 

?????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???. ????? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ??? 1871.

 

2. ????? ???????? ?????? ??????

 

?? ??? 1886? ???? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?????.

 

3. ????? ???????? ??? ??????

 

???? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? 1897. ??? ????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????.

 

4. ??????????? ???????? ????

 

?????? ???????? ???? ???? ??????????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? 1903. ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????.

 

5. ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???????

 

????? ???? ??????? ??? 1903 ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????.

 

???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? – ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????. ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ??? 1904 ????? ??? ??????? ??? 1905.

 

6. ????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ???????

 

?? ??? 1930? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ?? ????.

 

7. ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????

 

???? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????????. ????? ??????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????.

 

8. ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????

 

?????? ???????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? COBOL? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ??? 1969? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?????.

 

9. ?????? ??????? ?????

 

??? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ??????? – ??? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? – ????? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ??? 1966.

 

10. ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????

 

????? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??? 1991 ?????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????.

 

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