علوم و تكنولوجيا

الثلاثاء,29 مارس, 2016
قصة من تاريخ العلم: كم هي صعبة مهمة عد الكروموزومات البشرية؟

??????_ ?? ????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ??????.

????? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ???????? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ?? 40 ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ??? “?? ???????????? ???????”.

??? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ??? “????” ??? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?? DNA ???? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ????????? ????????? ????? ????? “??? ???? ????? ????” ??????? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? DNA ??? 1953 ??? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? “?????????? ????????”? ??? ??? ???????????? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ????????? “?????” ?? ??? ?????? ??? ????! .. ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? 1955 ????? ??? ??? 1956.

?????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ???????? “????? ???????” ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? ????????????? ?????? “??? ??????? ???????”.

???????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????????????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????.

???? ????????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? 24 ????????? ?? 12 ????? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ???????? ???? ???? ?? “???? ??? ????????” ????? ??? 1912 ?? ?????? 47 ????????? ??????? 48? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???????.

???? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? !

??? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?????????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????????????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? “??????? ?????”.

??? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ??? 48 ????????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???????????? ???? ??????.

???? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ???????????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???????????? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??????.

??????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ????? ????? ??? “?????” ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ??????.

??? ????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??? 3 ??? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????????!

??? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ????????????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ???? 48 ?????????? ???? ??? ?? ????????: ” ????? ??? ???????????? ?? ??????? ???? ???????? ??? 45 ? 48 ?????????? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ????? 46 ????????? ??? !” ? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ?? 48? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ???? ???”48? ???? ????? ????????? ??? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????????.

????? ?????????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?? “??.??.???”? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ???????????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ???????????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?????!

??? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??? 3 ???? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ???? ????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ??????.

???? ??? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ????.

?? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? “Hypotonic shock” ???? ???? ???? ??? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???.

???? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??? 48? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? 48? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ???? ???????.

??? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???? ????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ????????? ?? ????.

??? ????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ??????? ???? “??????????” ?????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? Metaphase”” ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ???????????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????????????.

?? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ?????????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ????????.

??? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???? ??? 1956 ????? ????? ?? ????? “Hereditas”? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ????????.

??? ????? 4 ???? ?? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????.

???? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ????.