الخميس 17 أوت 2017

الرئيسية الأولى

الخميس,25 فبراير, 2016
ثورة هادئة: الجيش التونسي بعد بن علي

??????_??? ???????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?? ????? “????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????-???????? 2014-2015: ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????????” ???? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????????.

 

?????

 

?????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????-???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ????. ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ???? ????? 2011 ?? ????? ??????. ??? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????-???????? ??? ???? ?????:

 

  • ?????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ????????.

  • ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ???.

  • ????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????.

  • ????? ???? ????? ???????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???? ?? ???? ?????????.

  • ???? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????? ??????.

?? ????? 2016? ???? ?? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????.  ???? ?? ?? ????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?????????? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ????? ????????. ??? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????????.

 

??????

?????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????????. ?????? ??? ?? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ????? 2013? ?????? ????? ????????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ???? ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????.

 

????? ??????

????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ????????.

 

?? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?????. ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? 40.500 ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ???? ???? ???? ?? 11 ????? ????.

??? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ???? (“?????”??? ??? ???? ??????) ?? ???????. ????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????. ??? ????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ?? ?????2011? ??? ?? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????.

 

?? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??????2 ?? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????. ??? ???? ???? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????-????????? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???? ???????.

 

????? ?? ???????

 

??? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????????. ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?????????? ?? ????? ????? ????????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ??????. ???? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ??????????????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ???.

 

3???? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?? ??? ????????? ?? ?????. ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? 30 ??????/????? 1956? ???? 850 ?? ???? ??? ?????? (?????)? ?1500 ?? ????? ???????? ?3000 ?? ????????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????.

 

??? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? 1961? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????. ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ??? 40 ??? 50 ?? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????. ??? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ?????.

 

??? ????? ??? ???????? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ????. ??? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????. ??? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ???????. ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????.

 

?? ????? 1956? ???? ??????? ????? “????? ???????? ??????” ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? “??? ???”.

 

4??? ??? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?? ???? – ????? ???? ??? ???? “????? ???????” – ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??????.5

 

??? ???? ????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??????. ??? ????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? 1978? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ???? ???????? ?? ????? 1980? ???????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? 1983-1984? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? “?? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ??… ????? ?????? ???????”? ??? ??? ?.?. ???? ??? ???? ?? ???? ????? ???????.

 

????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ???????? ???????? (???? ??????? 1 ?2).

??? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ??2011.

??? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ??2011.

????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ???? ????? ????. ?? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? 1964? 7 ??? ????? ???????? ?? ????? 1977 ?????? ????? ????? ??????.

??? ?? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ????? 1980? ????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? 1984? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? 1986? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????. ?? ????? 1984? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? 6 ???? ????.

 

?? ???????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????:8 ??? 7 ?????? 1987? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ????.

 

 9-??? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????.10 ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ?????/????? ?? ????? 2000.

 

????? ?? ??? ?? ???

 

???? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??????.  ??? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???? ??? ???? ??????11 ?? ??? ?????? ????? “???? ?????? ??????” ???? ????? ??????? ????? “???? ????? ??????” ???? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?????: ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ???????. ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??”??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????”.12

 

??? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????. ????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? 1987? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? 1988 ??? ?? ???????? ?? ????? 1990? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? 1989 ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? 1990? ???? ???????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? 1991? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????.

??? ????????? ???? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ????? ???????????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?? ???????. ???? ??? ?. ?. ??? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? “?????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ???”.

 

13??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????: ????? ?????? (????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????????) ???????.

14 ?????? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????. ?? ???  1991? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ???????.

???? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????? (?? ????? ??? ???????)? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ????????.

????? ???? ???? ???? “???? ????? ??????” ???? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? 244 ?? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????????? ????? ????? ????? ?????.

 

????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????15 ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??????. ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????.  ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?????.

??? ????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ?????. ??? ???? ??????? ????? ????????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ??? 165 ?? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? 1992? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ????????. ?????? ???? ???? ???????.

 

16????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? “??????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ????????”. ?????: “?? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????. ?? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????. ??? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????. ??? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ???????”.

 

17?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ????????. ???? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? 1991? ??? ?? ??? ????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????. ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ?????.

??? ???? ???? ??????:18 “??? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ??????! ??? [???? ??????] ???? ???????? ?????? ??? [????? ??????? ??] ????? ??????. ??? ??? ?? ?????? ??????. ???? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ????”.19

 

???? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ???? ???????? ???????. ?? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ???????.

??? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ????.

????? ??? ??????? 24 ?? ????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? 40 ?? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ???.20

 

???? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? (???? ????? ????? 2002-2013? ???? ?????? ?? ??????) ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???????: “??? ??? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???. ???? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ????”.21

 ????? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ??????.22

 ??? ??? ???? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????.23

 

?? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????. ??? ??? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ????? ????.

 

?????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????? ???????? ?? ??????. ?????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? 2010 ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ???.

 

?? ???? ??? ?? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????. ?????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ????????.

24 ??? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ??? 14 ????? ?????  2011? ?? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ????????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?????.25

 

???? ???? ?????

 

??????? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??? ??????????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ???????. ??? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? “???? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ????” ?? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ?????.

26 ??? ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? 24 ????? ?????  ????? ??????? ?? ??????????. ?? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????????? ???? ????? ?? “????? ????? ??????”? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ?????.

 

??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ????: ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ?????. ????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? (???? ????) ??? ??????: “??? ????? ???? ???? ????????? ????????. ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ??????”.27

 

????? ???? ???? ??????: “??? ??? ????? ????? ????. ???? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?????. ??? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???????.

??? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????: ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????. ??????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???????”.28

 

???? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????.

?? ?????  2011? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ??????. ??? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????.

???????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????. ???????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ????? (???????) ?? ????? 2011? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? (???????) ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ???? 1991 ?2010?? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????.

 

????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????? ????. ??? ??? ??? ????????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? 2011? ??? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????.

????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ???. ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????? “??? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ?????. ??????? ????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ???. ???? ??? ?? ??? ?????”.29

 ????? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????: “?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?????”.30  

 

???? ???? ????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?? ??? ????. ??? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????????.

 

?? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????

 

?? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???? 2011? ????? ???? ?????? ????????? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ??? (??????? ?? ??? ?????????) ?(??????).

???? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ?????????? ???? ???????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????????. ??? ????? ?????????? ???? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ????.

 

???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????. ??? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? 2011? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????. ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? “???????? ?? ???? ???????”.31

 ???? ????? ????? 2014 ??? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ????? ????????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?”??? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????”.32

 ??? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ???????.

 

???? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ???????. ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????.

?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ???? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ?????. ??? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ?? “??? ??????? ???????? ??????”.33

 ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???????.

 

????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?????? (????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????)? ???? ??????? ????? (???? ?????). ??? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ????? ???? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? (???? ????? ?? ??? ?????) ??????? ????? ????? ??????? (????? ??? ???? ?????).

???? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ???. ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ????? 2013 ?? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????. ?? ????? ??? ?????? ??? (???? ??????) ?? ????? 2014 ?? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????.

 

????? ???? ????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ?????. ??? ????? ???????? ?? ????????34 ???? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ??????. ????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ????? 2012 ?? ???? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?????.

?? ?????? 2011? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????. ???? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???????? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ?????.

?? ???? ???? ?????? ????????? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ????  2012. 35

 

??? ???????? ?????????? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ???????.

36 ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????.37 ??? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????.

 

??? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? 2012? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??????.38

 ?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? (?????? ???? ????? ????? ?????)? ??? ??? ????- ??? ???? ????? ?? ????? ????- ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????. ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????? “???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?????” ???? ????? ??? ??????.39

 

?????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????. ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????. ???? ????? ???? ????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????.

40 ??? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ????? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ?????.

 

????? ??? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ????? 1991? ??? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?????. ?? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ????????. ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ????????. ??? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ????? ????. ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????: ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????.41

 

?? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????.  ??? ???? ???? ???????? ???? ????? ???????? ??? ??? “?? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ???. ?? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ?????”.42

 

 ???? ????? 2012? ????? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????????. ??? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? 2013 ???? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? 2012 ?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ????? 2014. ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? “?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??????”.43

 

??????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ????????

 

?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ??????. ??? ?? ???? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????. ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? (????? ???????)? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? 2012 ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ????. ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? 2012.

??? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???. ??? ??? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??????: “???????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????! ???? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? [??? ????? ???????? ???????]. ??? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ??????”.44

 

?????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ????? 2013.

?????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ??????????? ??????? “??????? ????”? ???????? ?? ????? ???????. ???? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????. ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ????????.

 

??? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ?????. ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ????????? ???????.  ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??? ???????.

?? 6 ???? 2013? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????. ??? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ?????????? (??? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????????)? ????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??? “??? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????”.45 ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ?? 27 ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????.46

 

??? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ????????? ????? ????? ?????. ???? ????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ????.

???? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ??? 25 ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????. ???? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????. ???? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ???.

 

???? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ????? 2013 ???? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ??????: “??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????.

??? ??? ????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ???????????. ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ????”.47 ????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???” ?????? ??? ????? ?? ???”? ???? ????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??????”.48

 

????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ??????. ????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????. ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ????????. ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? 2010. ???? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ????? 2011? ????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ?????.

 

????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ?????. ??? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????. ???? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???? ????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????.

 

??? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????: “???? ????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????. ?? ??? ????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???????. ??? ????? ???????? ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ??????!”49

 

???? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ????????? “????? ???? ????? ????. ???? ?? ??? ????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????. ??? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ????? ????? ?? ??????”.50

 

?? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ?? ????????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ?????. ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ????????. ???? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ????????.51 ???? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ???????.52

 

????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????

 

?????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ????? 2016. ??? ?? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ????.

 

??????? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????. ??? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?? 27 ??? ? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????/????. ??? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ?? 29 ??? ? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????.53

 

????? ??????? ?? ??? ????????? “???? ??????? ???????” ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????. ?????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????????.54 ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????.

 

????? ?????

?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??????. ??? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????. ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ??????.

 

?? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ?? ????? ???? ?? ????? 2011 ??? ????? 2016? ????? ????? 21 ?? ????? ?????? (???? ?????? 1). ???? ????? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ???? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????. ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????. ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ????????. ?? ????? 2011? ???? ??????? ?????? 56 ?? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ????? ????????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? 72 ?? ?????.

    

???? ???????: “???? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?? ’??? ?????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????‘. ????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ???!”55 ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? “?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?????? ??????. ????? ?? ??? ??? ??????. ???? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ???????. ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????. ?? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???”.56

 

??? ?? ???? ????????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????. ??? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ????? 2013 ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ????????. ??? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ???????. “???? ???????? ??? ????? [??????? ?????? ????? ??? ????] ??? ???? ???? ????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ?????”.57

 

??? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????. ?? ????? 2014? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????. ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ????? 2015? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? (???? ???) ??????? ??? ????? ??????? (???????).58 ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? 2015 ?? ?????? ??????? 52 ???? ?? ???? (????)? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ???? C-130J.

 

???? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????? 2011 ????? ??????? ???????-??????? ?? ????? ????????. ??? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? 2011? ??? ????? ?? ?????? 2013? ??? ??? ?? ?????? 2014. ???? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ??????.

??? ????? 2014? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ????????? ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??????. ?? ??????  2015? ???? ???????? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??????? (??????)? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? “??????????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????????”? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????.59

 

?????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????. ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??? 2015? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? “???????”. ???? ?????? ???? ???????: “???? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????. ????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????. ??? [???] ?????? ?????? ][ ??? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????”.60

 

??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????. ?? ?????? 2014? ???? ???????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? “????? ??????????? ?????? ??????”? ??????? ???? ????????? ????????????? ?? “????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ????”.61 ?????? ???? ???????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? 1964? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????. ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? 2014 ??????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? 2016.

??? ????? ???? ???? ???? ??????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ???????.62

 

???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????. ??? ????? 2012 ????? ????? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????. ?????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ????. ???????? ????? 2013 (??? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????)? ???? ????? ????? ????? 11 ?? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? (???? ????? 3)? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ????????? ????? ??????.

??????: ?? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? (???? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?? 16 ?????? 2015)? ??????? ???????? ??? ?? ????? (???? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ?? 4 ?????? 2015)? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? (???? ??????? ?? ???? ?? 5  2015).

 

???? ??? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???? ????? ????. ???? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ????????. ??? ?? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????????. ??? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????. ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????: “??? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ???. ??? ??????? ????? ?? ???. ???? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???????. ?? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ???. ??? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????????”.63

 

??????? ???? ????? ??????

????? ???? ????? 2011 ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???244 ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ????? 1991? ????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????. ???? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ????????. ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ?? “???? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????. ??? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ??????”.64

 

??? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?????? (????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????) ????? ?? ??? ??? ??????. ????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ?????. ?? ?????? 2011? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? 4-5 ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????? ?? ????? 2012 ??? ?????. ?? 23 ???? 2012? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???244 ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ??????.

 

?? ???? 2014? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????? 28-2014 ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?? ?? ??? ?????. ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????. ???? ???????? ??? ??? ???????: “?? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????”.65

 

“??? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ???”? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?? ????? 1991. ????: “??? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????”.66 ??? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?? ????? 1991? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? 2015.

 

 ??????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????. ?????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ????? ????? 1991 ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????67 ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ???.

 

?????? ?? ??????? ??????

???? ??? ???? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ?? ???. ??? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????.

 

??? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????. ??? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? (?????? ?? ???? 2011)? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? (?????? 2013)? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? (?????? 2015).

 

??? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ??????. ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ??????: “?? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ???????. ??????? ???? ?????? ??[????] Leaders? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? [?????? ??????? ??????????]. ?? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ???? ?? ???”.68

 

????? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????? 9? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? 36? ??? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ????? ?????. ??? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ????? 2014 ?????? ???? ??????? ????????.

???????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ?????????? ????????. ??? ????? 2015? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? Leaders  ????? ????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ????????.69

 

?? ??? ???? ????????? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ????????. ?? ????? 2015? ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ????????

. ???? ????? ?? ?? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ? ?????? ? ?????? 2015? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ???????? ????????.

 

????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????????? ???? ???? ????????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????. ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ????????. ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ??? “??????? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???? ????? ????? ?????”? ??? ??? ???? ??????.70

 

???? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????? “???? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??????. ???? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????. ?????? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????”.71

 

??? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ????. ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????. ????? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????. ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????. ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ????: “??? ???? ?? ????????? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ???? ???! ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????”.72

 

?????

????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ????? 2011 ????? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????. ?? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ????????? ???? ????? ????. ??? ????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???? ???????? ????????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????. ??? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????. ????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????.

 

?? ???? ????? 2016? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ???. ??? ???? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???????73 ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?????.74 ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ????????? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????.

 

?????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??? ?? ????????? ?????? ???????. ??? ??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????. ??? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???? ?????????.

 

??? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???????. ??? ???? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????????. ????????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ??? ?? ???? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ???????????. ????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????.

????? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????. ??????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ??????. ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ???????  ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ????????.

 

????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ????????.

 

?????

1 ???? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ??/????? ?????? ?????/?????? 2015. ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? 21 ?????/?????? 2015.

2 ????? ??? ???? ??????: Risa Brooks, “Abandoned at the Palace: Why the Tunisian Military Defected from the Ben Ali Regime in January 2011,” Journal of Strategic Studies 36, no. 2 (2013): 205-220; Hicham Bou Nassif, “A Military Besieged: The Armed Forces, the Police, and the Party in Ben Ali’s Tunisia, 1987-2011,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 47 (2015): 65-87; and Sharan Grewal, “Why Tunisia Didn’t Follow Egypt’s Path,” Monkey Cage (blog), Washington Post, February 4, 2015,<https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/monkey-cage/wp/2015/02/04/why-egypt-didnt-follow-tunisias-path/.

3 ??? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? (?????) ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????.

4 ?????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? 13 ????? ?????/?????? 2015. ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ?? ?????.

5 ??? ?? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ????? ???? ?? “????? ???????” ???? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? 1991. ????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ??????. ?????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? 1964 ???? ????? 1988. ????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??????.

6 L. B. Ware, “Ben Ali’s Constitutional Coup in Tunisia,” The Middle East Journal, 42, no. 4 (1988): 594.

7 ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ????? – ?? ???? ??? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????? 1964? ??? ??? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? – ??? ????? ?? ????? 1963 ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ????? ?? 1956 ??? 1964.

??? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????????. ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ????? 8 ?????? 2015.

8 ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?????: ????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? 1974? ??? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? 1980.

9 ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ?? 7 ?????? 1987 ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? 8 ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ???? “?????? ???87”? ?? “?????? 8 ??????”? ?? “???????? ???????”? ?? ???????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ??? “?????? ?????? ??????”. ???? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? 120 ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? “???? ??????? ????????” ????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????. ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ????????? ????? 2 ??????? ?24 ??????? ?25 ?????? 2015.

10 ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? 24 ?????? 2015.

11 ????? ?????? ??????? ??: ???? ????? (???? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ???????)? ????? ?????? (???? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ??????)? ???? ???? (???? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ??????)? ????? ?? ?????? (???? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???????). ???? ???????? ?? 1289-87 ??? 1295-87 ??????? ?? ?????? 1987.

12 ???? ??????? 1297-87 ?????? ?? 27 ?????? 1987 (??????? ?????????? 251-88 ?1195-90). ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????.

13Ware Constitutional Coup, 593.

14 ?????? ?? ???? ?????? (?? ?????? ??????) ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? 20 ?????? 2015.

15 ???? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ??????. ??? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ???244 ????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ????????. ?????? ?? ???? ?????? (?? ?????) ???? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? 26 ????? ?????/?????? 2015.

16 ???? ?????: Derek Lutterbeck, “Tool of Rule: The Tunisian Police Under Ben Ali,” Journal of North African Studies 20, no. 5 (2015): 813-31.

17 ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????? ????? 6 ?????? 2015.

18 ?????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????. ?? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????: ???? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????.

19 ?????? ?? ???? ?????? (?? ?????) ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? 26 ?????? 2015.

20 ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?? ????? ???????: ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????. ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???? ?? ??? 16 ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ??????. ???? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ???16 (38 ?? ?????) ???????? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ?? ??????.

21 ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ????? 17 ?????? 2015.

22 ?????? ?? ???? ?????? (?? ?????) ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? 26 ?????? 2015.

23 ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ????? 21 ??????2015. ????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???????. ????: L. B. Ware, “The Role of the Tunisian Military in the Post-Bourgiba Era,” Middle East Journal 39, no. 1 (1985): 38-39.

24 ???????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?? 7 ????? 2011? ?? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????. ??? 17 ??????? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ?? ???. ????: Mehdi Farhat, “Yassine Ayari: ‘L’armée n’a jamais reçu l’ordre de tirer’,” Slate Afrique, July 20, 2011, http://www.slateafrique.com/15009/yassine-ayari-revolution-tunisie-blogueur-rachid-ammar-armee.

25 ?????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? 13 ?????? 2015.

26David D. Kirkpatrick, “Chief of Tunisian Army Pledges His Support for ‘the Revolution,’” The New York Times, January 24, 2011, .

27 ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ????? 17 ?????? 2015.

28 ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? (?? ?????) ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? 5?????? 2015.

29 ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????? 9 ?????? 2015.

30 ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ??????? ????? 28 ?????? 2015.

31 ???? ??????? 6-2011? ??????? ?? 16 ?????? 2011? ????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????. (????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????).

32 ???? ?????? 77 ?? ????? ????? 2014. (????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????).

33 ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? 17 ?????? 2015.

34 ???? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ???????: ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????.    

35 ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????. ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ????. ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? 17 ?????? 2015.

36 ?????? ?? ???? ???????? (??? ??????? ?? ??? ?????????)? ????? 5 ??? 2015.

37 ?? ?????? 2012? ???? ??? ???? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ???? “????? ???? ?????”? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ????? ????? ????????.

38“Marzouki nomme Brahim Ouechtati, conseiller chargé des affaires militaires,” Business News, September 22, 2012, http://www.businessnews.com.tn/Marzouki-nomme-Brahim-Ouechtati,-conseiller-chargé-des-affaires-militaires,520,33574,3.

39 ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ????? 22 ?????? 2015.

40 ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????????? ???? ???????? ????? 22 ?????? 2015.

41 ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????: ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????.

42 ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????????? ???? ???????? ????? 22?????? 2015.

43 ?????? ?? ???? ?????? (?? ?????) ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? 26 ?????? 2015.

44 ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? 21 ?????? 2015.

45 ??? ???? ???? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????. ?????? ?? ???? ????? ????? 18 ?????? 2015.

46 ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????????? ???? ???????? ????? 22 ?????? 2015.

47 ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ????? 27 ???  2015.

48 ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? 21 ??????.

49 ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????????? ???? ???????? ????? 22 ?????? 2015.

50 ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ????? 17 ?????? 2015.

51 ????: Chantal Berman and Elizabeth Nugent, “Defining Political Choices: Tunisia’s Second Democratic Elections from the Ground Up” (Center for Middle East Policy, Analysis Papers #38, Brookings Institution, May 2015).

52 ?????? ?? ???? ?????? (?? ?????) ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? 26 ?????? 2015.

53 ???? ?????? 5 ?? ??????? 230-2013 ?????? ?? 29 ???  2013.

54 ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?????????? ?? ??? 2013. ?????? ?? ??????? ????? 22 ?????? 2015.

55 ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????????? ???? ???????? ????? 22 ?????? 2015.

56 ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????? ????? 6 ?????? 2015.

57 ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ????? 22 ?????? 2015.

58 ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????? ????? ???? ?????? 7 ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????: http://www.defense.gov/News/Contracts/Search/tunisia

59 Office of the Spokesperson, “Designation of Tunisia as a Major Non-NATO Ally,” press release, U.S. State Department, July 10, 2015, .

60“Tunisia unveils new Navy frigate ‘Istiqlal,’” TVC News, http://www.tvcnews.tv.(?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?????).

61 ???? ??????? 4208-2014 ?????? ?? 20 ?????? 2014.

62 ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? “???? ???? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???????-????”? ????? 11 ?????? 2015.

63 ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? 21?????? 2015.

64 ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ?? ?????? ????? 4?????? 2015.

65“Marzouki: ‘With the Rehabilitation of the Military of Barraket Essahel, Tunisia Turns Dark chapter in its history,’” Agence Tunis Afrique Presse, July 24, 2014, .

66 ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? 24 ?????? 2015.

67 ?? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???? ?? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????.

68 ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????? ????? 6 ?????? 2015.

69 ????:Mohamed Meddeb, Réflexions Sur Défense & Sécurité Nationale: Quelles Réformes Pour l’ère Démocratique? [Reflections on Defense and National Security: What Reforms for the Democratic Era?] (Tunis: Leaders, February 2015).

70 ?????? ?? ???? ?????? (?? ?????) ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? 26 ?????? 2015.

71 ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? “???? ???? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???????-????”? ????? 11 ????? ??????/?????? 2015.

72 ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ????? 17 ?????? 2015.

73 ???? ????? “?????? ???????: ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????”? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? 16 ????/???? 2015? Fadil Aliriza, “Tunisia at Risk: Will Counter-Terrorism Undermine the Revolution?” Legatum Institute, November 2015.

74 ???? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ???? “??? ??????” ???? ????? ??????? ???????. ???????? ???? ??: “Issam Dardouri: Rachid Ammar est un hèros en carton,” Tuniscope, November 9, 2015, http://www.tuniscope.com/article/81958/actualites/tunisie/ammar-dardouri-carton-280817.

 

????? ??????