أهم المقالات في الشاهد

الأربعاء,12 أغسطس, 2015
بعيدًا عن المشادات السياسية: حول قضية سب الصحابة في الفكر الشيعي

?????? _ ?? ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ????????? (????? ???????)? ????? “?? ???????”? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ????????? ????????.

???? ??? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? / ???????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? -????????- ??? ?? ???????? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ????????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?? ?????? ???????.

1- ??? ??? ???? ?????? ???????

?????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ?????:

???? ??? ?? ????? ????? ????????? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ????: ?? ??? ????? ???” ?? ????? ???? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????” – ????? -? ????: ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ??????” (???? ????? – (? 1 / ? (428).

??? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???? ???????- ????? ??? ????? ??????? ? 208:-:

???? ???? ??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ????.

??? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ???????? ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? “?????? ?????? ??????? ??????”:

?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ???????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ??????.

??? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ????????: “?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????) ??????) ???? ??? ???????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ????? ?????”? ?? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ????????:” ?? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ???”? ??? ???? ??? ???? ????? ???? ??????: “???? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???????”.

????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? – ????? ??? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????- ?? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???.

??? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????.

2-??? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?????????

??? ?????? ???????

???? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? “????????”.

??? ???? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ????????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ????????? ?? ??? ??????.

??? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????.

?????? ?? ???

???? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????:

????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ???.

3-????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????

“???????”: ?? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???????.

??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??????? “??????????”? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??????? “?????????”? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???????? ???? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????.

??????? ?????????: ?????? ?????? ???? ??????? ????????

??? ???? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???: ?? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????.

??? ?? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ??? ????? “?????? ?????” ?? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ???????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ?? ???? «???? ???????» ????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ????????. ????? ??? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ???? «???????» ?? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????.

???? ??? ??? )???? ?????) ? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? “????? ??????? “???? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????.

?? ????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??? ???? “?????” ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ????????.

4-??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????????

 

????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????????.

??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????: ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ?? ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????.

??? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ????? “???? ???????” ?? ?? ???? ????? ??”??????? ??????”? ????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ???????.

5- ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ???????

???? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ????? 15 ???? ??????”???????” ?”???????” ?”???”? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????:

???? ??????:

???? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? 30 ?????? 2003? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ????????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?????.

???? ????? ??? ???? ????????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? )??????(? ???? ?? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ????.

??? ????????:

??? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ??? )??? ?????(? ??? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????? (????? ??????) ?????? ????? ?????? ?????????.

????? ???????? :

????? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???? ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? 1943? ??? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????.

????? ????????? ?? ??????????:

?????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? – ?????? ?????????
???? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ????? “?????? ??????” ?? ?????”?????? ?????????”? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??? ??????.

??? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? “?????? ?????????”? ????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????.

?????? ????????? – ?????? ????? ????

6- ?? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ????????

???? ???? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ????? “???? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ???? ? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???? ????????? ? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ??????”. ???? ?? ???? ????”????? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????”.

??? ???? ????? ????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????.

???? ????