عالمي عربي

الجمعة,17 نوفمبر, 2017
العرب يتسابقون إلى الفضاء.. فهل وصلوا إلى تطبيقات الأقمار الصناعية ؟

??? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? “???? ??????-?”? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? “????? ???”? ????? 2018? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ??????.

????? ???????? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????.

????????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ??? 21 ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ???? 36.7% ????? ????? ?????? 14.6%? ?? ????? 11.3%? ???? 9.8%? ???? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??4.7%.

????? ??????? ??? 16 ?????  1976? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??????? (??? ???) ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ???? ??? “Arabsat 1A”? ??? 1985? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????. ???????? ??? “??? ???” ??? ???? ??????.

** ??? 

???????? ????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????  1998? ????? ?????? ????? “???? ??? 101”? ?? “???? ??? 102”? ?? ??? 2000.

????? ??????? ???? ?? 680 ???? ?????????? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???? ????? ??? 1996.

??? ????? ??? “?????? ???-1” ???? ??? ???? ????????? ?? ???? ?? 2007? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ???? (??????) ????? ????? “?????” ?????????.
????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????.

???????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??? 2019? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ???? “??? ??? 2” ???? 2021-2022.
??????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???? ????????? ??? 13 ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????.

** ???????? 

????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? 2000? ???? “????? ???-1” ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????.

???? ??? ??????? ???????? 13 ?????? ????? (OSCAR 50) ? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????? ????? ??????? (SAUDISAT 1C) ? ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???? ????? ???????.

??? 2014 ????? ?????? ????? ???13? ???? “????? ??? 4”? ??? ??????? ??????– ????????? “?????” ?? ????? “?????” ???????.

?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ??????.

?????? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???? ???? ?????? “????? ??? 5”? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? (LONG MARCH 2D)? ???? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????.

** ???????? 

????? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? 2018 ?????? 10 ?????.
???? ??? 2000 ????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ?? “?????? 1” ????? ??????????? ????? ??? ????????? “??? ???”? ??? 2007.
??? 2009 ????? ???????? “??? ???-1”? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????.
??? ????? 2017 ????? “????-1” ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????? ????? ??? “????? ???”? ?? ????? 2018.
????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?? 2014? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?????.
????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? 2021? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????.

** ?????? 

??? ????? ????? “???? ??????- ?” ??? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? 2001? ??????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??? “????? ???????” ?? “?????-??????”.

??????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??”????? ???????”? ????? ??? ???? “???? ??????- ?”.
????? “????? ???????” ??????? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ???? 24 ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? 12 ???? ????????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???????.

?????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???.

??? ??? “???? ??????- ?” ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????.

** ??????? 

??? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ??”????? ???????”? ????? ??????? ????? ????? “?????1” (AlSat1) ?? ?????? 2002.
??? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ???? “????” ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????.
??? 2010 ????? ??????? “?????2” ?? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?????????.

?????? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ????? ???? “????? ??? 1”.
???? ???? “??????” ???????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????.
????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????.

** ??? 

??? ??? ??????? ???????? “????? 5” ????? ???? ?? 2013 ? ????? “???? 1”? ??? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????.

???? ???? ????? ???? “???????” ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? 2010? ???? ??? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????.

?????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???? “????2”? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ????? 100%? ??????? ?????.
?????? “???? 2” ????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???????.

** ?????

???? ????? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ?? 2010? ???? “??? 1”? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? “????” ????????.
????? ???? “?????? ???? ???” ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ????? 15 ??? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ???????.
????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? 63% ?? ??????? ????? “????” ???????? 12% ?????? ????????? (45 ????) 25%.

** ?????? 

???????? ?? ????? “????????” ?????????? ???? ??????? ?? 2014? ???? “???? ???”? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????.
?????? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ???????.

** ????? ???? ?????

???? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????????? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???? “???? ?? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????”.
????? ????? ?? ???? ????????? ?? “????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????????”.
?????: “???? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? “?????? ???-1″? ??? 2007? ??? ??? ??? ???? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ????????”.

???? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???? ?? “??????????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ?????????”.

???? ??????: “????????? ??????? ???? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???????”.

??????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ???? “????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ????????? ???????? ????????”.

** ?????? ???????

???? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? “??????? ???????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ?????”.

????? ?????? ?? ???? ????????: “???? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ????”.

?????: “???? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? ????????? ??? ????? ????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????”.

????? ?????? “???? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????”.

????? ??? ??? “???? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ????? (24 ????)? ????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ???????”.