مختارات

الأربعاء,24 فبراير, 2016
الإسلام والمسلمون في روسيا عبر العصور

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???? ??????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ????? 922? ????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ????. ???? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ??”???? ??? ?????” ????? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ???? ????. ???? “???? ??? ?????”? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?? “???? ?? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ??????”.

 

 

??? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ???????? (???? ????? ?? ??? 960 ??? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??? 1015)? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ????????? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????. ???? ????? ?? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????. ???? “????? ??????? ???????” ??? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ??? 986 ?? ???? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????. ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ????????: “?????? ?? ?????”. ???? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ???? ????????? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??????.

 

 

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??????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ???.?

 

 

 

????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????. ???? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ????? “??????? ???????” (??????? ???????).

 

 

??? ??? 1245 ????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ??? 1312 ???? ???? ??? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ???? “??????? ???????”. ???? ????? ?? ?? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? (?????? ?????? ??????? (1350-1389)??? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ??? 1380? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????)? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ???????.

 

 

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?? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ???. ?? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ??????. ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ?????. ??????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ???????. ??? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????. ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????.

 

????? ?? ???????? ???????-????????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ???? ???????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? (???? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ??????. ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????). ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????. ?????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? (?1530-1584) ?? ????? ????? ?? ??? 1552. ???? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ???.

 

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??? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ???. ??? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????. ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????. ??? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ????? ????? ??? ????????. ??? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ???????????? ??????? (??? ??????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???????).

 

?? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ????. ??? ????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ???????. ???? ???? ??????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ??????? (1709-1761) ?? ??? 1755 ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? (1672-1725).

 

???? ??????????? ????????? ??????? (1729-1796) ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????. ????? ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ???????.

 

 

???? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????.

 

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??? ??? 1831 ???? ???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? (????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????) ???? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? 1857 ?? ????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????? “????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? (??? ???????? ???????????)”? ???? ??? ??? ???? ????? ????????.

 

 

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??? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ????????? (1817-1864) ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????????? ????? ??????. ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? “??????”. ????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ??? 1834 ?1859 ??? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? “????????”? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????.

 

 

 

????? ?? ????? ????????? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ???????.

 

 

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???? ?????????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ??????. ???? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???. ????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? “?????????”. ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ???? “???????”.

 

 

??? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????. ?? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????. ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? “????? ????????”? ??? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????.

 

????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ???????. ???? ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ???????? ???????. ??? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????. ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????-?????? ????. ??? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????. ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? (??? ???????? ???????????) ?????? ?????? ????????.

 

 

???? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ??? 1917 ??? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ????????. ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ??? 1912 ??? ??? 25 ????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ????? 45 ??? ???. ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ???????.

 

 

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?? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? 1917? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????????. ???? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???? ???? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??????. ??? ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ???? ??? ???? ?????-????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ????? “???????? ?????????”. ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ????????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ?? “?????? ???????” ???? ?? ????? ?????????.

 

 

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?????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ????????. ??? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????. ??? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ?? “??????? ???? ???????”? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ????? “?????????” ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????.

 

 

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???? ???? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????? ????????. ??????? ???????? ??????? ???  ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? (???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????) ?? ?????? ??? ??????.

 

??? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? “????????” ?”???????”. ??? ??? 1990 ???? ??? ????? ?????? ” ??? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????? ????????” ???? ????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????.

 

 

????? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????.

 

??????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????

 

????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ??????. ???? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??? 2002? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ???????? ??????? ??? 14.5 ????? ???? ?? ????? 10% ?? ??? ???? ??????. ??? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ?????.

 

 

????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? (??? 98%)? ??? ??????? (96%)? ???????? (94%)? ????????- ??????? (70%)? ???? ??? -??????? (63%)? ???????? (63%)? ? ???????? (54%). ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ???? ????????? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????. ????? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ????????. ????? ??? 40 ???? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????:

 

– ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ???????. ????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????? ????? ??? 1.3 ????? ????.

 

– ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ???????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????. ????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????. ????? ??? ?????? ??? 6 ?????? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ?????????? ????

 

– ?? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????? (?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ??? 544 ??? ????) ???????? (?????? ?? ??? ???- ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????33 ??? ????)? ???? ?????? (?????? ?? ??????? ?????? 18 ??? ???)? ??????? (?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? 123 ??? ???)? ???????? (?????? ?? ???????- ??????? ?????? 78 ??? ???)? ???? ???????? (?????? ?? ??????? ?????? 353 ??? ????)? ???????? (?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? 215 ??? ????)? ????????? (?????? ?? ???????- ??????? ?????? 386 ??? ????)? ?????? ??? (?????? ?? ??? ??? -??????? ?????? 150 ??? ????) ???????? (?????? ?? ??????? ?????? 277 ??? ????)? ????????? (?????? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? 257 ??? ????)? ???????? (?????? ?? ??????? ???? ??? -??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? 74 ??? ????) ??????? (??? ???- ?????? ?????? 50 ??? ???) ???????? (?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? 900 ??? ???) ?????? (?????? ?? ??????? ?????? 180 ??? ????).

 

??? ???? ???????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????????? (???? ????? ?? ????? 636 ??? ????) ????????? (336 ??? ????) ?????????? (127 ??? ????) ?????????? (42 ??? ????) ?????????? (40 ??? ???? ) ?????????? (38 ??? ????) ????? ????? ( 21 ??? ????).

 

 

??????? ?? ?????

 

???? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ????/???? ??? 2014? ???? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? 1954 ???? ???? ??????? ???????? (1991) ?? ???? ???????? ????????.

 

????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ?? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? 1783 ? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????.

 

?????? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ????? 15% ?? ????? 300 ??? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ?????.

 

 

???? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? ?? ???? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????. ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ?? ????? 1883.

 

???? ?????? ???? ??? 1917 ???? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ??????. ??? ??? 1921 ????? ????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????? ??????.

 

??? ????? ???????? ??????? (????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????) ??? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???? ??????? ?? ??? 1944 ???? ?????? ????????? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ????????. ?????  ?????????? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ??? 200 ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??? ???????.

 

????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ??? 1989? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ?????.

 

??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????? (???????? ??? ??????? ???????????) ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????.

 

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